jeudi 23 janvier 2014

Galactic Standard Calendar

The Galactic Standard Calendar was the standard measurement of time in the galaxy. It centered around the Coruscant solar cycle. The Coruscant solar cycle was 368 days long with a day consisting of 24 standard hours. Numerous epochs were used to determine calendar eras. The most recent of these calendar eras used the Battle of Yavin as its epoch, or "year zero". BBY stands for Before the Battle of Yavin, and ABY stands for After the Battle of Yavin.


The calendar, also referred to as the Coruscant Standard Calendar, was the main calendar in use in the galaxy since the time of the Galactic Republic. Presumably the Old Republic dated years from its founding in 25,053 BBY. Throughout time, however, historians have used numerous galaxy changing events as epoch to mark new calendar eras.
One particularly notable epoch is the Treaty of Coruscant of 3653 BBY. The calendar eras before and after this event (referred to as "BTC" and "ATC", respectively) were popularized by the famous Jedi historian Gnost-Dural. His holographic records, which used this numbering system, contained some of the most complete records of numerous important events such as the Hundred-Year Darkness, the Great Hyperspace War, the Great Sith War, the Mandalorian Wars, the Jedi Civil War, and the Great Galactic War against the returned Sith Empire. For this reason, this method of numbering years remains important to historians.
Other notable epochs used were the Ruusan Reformation of 1000 BBY, the Great ReSynchronization of 35 BBY, the formation of the Galactic Empire in 19 BBY, and the Battle of Endor in 4 ABY. With the exception of the Ruusan Reformation, the later epochs were all within the same century and stemmed from the events and upheavals surrounding the rise and fall of the Galactic Empire. They were short-lived and used by various historians at the time. In 25 ABY, the New Republic commissioned the New Republic Historical Council to re-standardize the Galactic Calendar. The historical council chose the Battle of Yavin, instead of the Battle of Endor, calling the former the more significant galactic event. From that point on, the year in which the Battle of Yavin occurred was the epoch used for the dating system. It was used by the New Republic, as well as the subsequent Galactic Alliance. Many regions, however, kept their own calendars, including the Imperial Remnant.

Time measurement

The calendar was based on the size and rotation of the planet Coruscant. It was a luno-solar calendar based both on Coruscant's orbit around its sun, and the orbit of its primary satellite Centax-1. The standard unit of time was the standard second. Sixty standard seconds made up each standard minute, and sixty minutes made up each standard hour. Each day consisted of 24 standard hours. A standard week was 5 standard days, and each month was seven weeks (making 35 standard days each month). A standard year was 368 days, composed of ten months, three fete weeks, and three holidays. As the Hyperdrive Theory allowed space travelers to bypass relativity, a single duration of time passed at all locations equally over a given interval.

In the galaxy:
  • 60 seconds = 1 minute
  • 60 minutes = 1 hour
  • 24 hours = 1 day
  • 5 days = 1 week
  • 7 weeks = 1 month
  • 35 days = 1 month
  • 368 days = 1 year
  • 10 months + 3 festival weeks + 3 holidays = 1 year
Days of the week
  1. Primeday
  2. Centaxday (Centaxday is similarly named to the real-life Monday, both connected with moons.)
  3. Taungsday (It was named for the Taungs of Coruscant.)
  4. Zhellday (It was named for the Zhell of Coruscant, presumably Humans ancestor)
  5. Benduday (It shared its name with the Bendu monks and the Bendu symbol of the Galactic Republic. )
Fete weeks 

New Year Fete Week was the first five days of the new year as determined by the Galactic Standard Calendar, but before the first month.
The Festival of Life, which originated in the Core Worlds, consisted of five days between the sixth and seventh months. It was marked by parties, get-togethers, and gift-giving.
The Festival of Stars was another celebratory week between the ninth and tenth months of the year that celebrates interstellar space travel. Many beings took vacations to other planets to mark this occasion.
The festivities concluded with the Galactic Fair (Imperial Fair during the Galactic Empire). Information on the Remnant's celebration of these weeks or the holidays is yet to be determined.

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Epoch (reference date)

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Each calendar era starts from an arbitrary epoch, which is often chosen to commemorate an important historical or mythological event. Many current and historical calendar eras exist, each with its own epoch.
Asian national eras

The official Japanese system numbers years from the accession of the current emperor, regarding the calendar year during which the accession occurred as the first year.
A similar system existed in China before 1912, being based on the accession year of the emperor (1911 was thus the third year of the Xuantong period). With the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, the republican era was introduced. It is still very common in Taiwan to date events via the republican era. The People's Republic of China adopted the common era calendar in 1949 (the 38th year of the Chinese Republic).
In India, the Indian national calendar follows the Saka era.
North Korea uses a system that starts in 1912 (= Juche 1), the year of the birth of their founder Kim Il-Sung.
In Thailand in 1888 King Chulalongkorn decreed a National Thai Era dating from the founding of Bangkok on April 6, 1782. In 1912, New Year's Day was shifted to April 1. In 1941, Prime Minister Phibunsongkhram decided to count the years since 543 BC. This is the Thai solar calendar using the Thai Buddhist Era. Except for this era, it is the Gregorian calendar.

Religious eras

In Christianity, the epoch of the anno Domini calendar era is the Incarnation of Jesus.[1]
In Israel, the traditional Hebrew calendar, using an era dating from Creation, is the official calendar. However, the Gregorian calendar is the de facto calendar and is commonly used. Government documents usually display a dual date. The beginning of year 1 of the Hebrew calendar occurred in the autumn of 3761 BC. Therefore, "Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year, in September 2003 marked the transition from 5763 to 5764".[2][3]
In the Islamic world, traditional Islamic dating according to the Anno Hegiræ (in the year of the hijra) or AH era remains in use to a varying extent, especially for religious purposes. The official Iranian calendar (used in Afghanistan as well as Iran) also dates from the hijra, but as it is a solar calendar its year numbering does not coincide with the religious calendar.
In Hinduism, all festivals are according to the Hindu calendar, based on the Vikram Samvat, which also functions as the national calendar of Nepal and Bangladesh.
The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland Southeast Asia in the countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Burma (officially known as Myanmar) and Sri Lanka in several related forms.
The Baha'i calendar is dated from the vernal equinox of the year the Báb proclaimed his religion (AD 1844). Years are grouped in Váḥids of 19 years, and Kull-i-Shay’s of 361 (19 x 19) years.[4]


In the French Republican Calendar, a calendar used by the French government for about twelve years from late 1793, the epoch was the beginning of the "Republican Era", September 22, 1792 (the day the French First Republic was proclaimed, one day after the Convention abolished the monarchy).
In the scientific Before Present system of numbering years for purposes of radiocarbon dating, the reference date is January 1, 1950 (though the use of January 1 is quite irrelevant, as radiocarbon dating has limited precision).[5][6]
Different branches of Freemasonry have selected different years to date their documents according to a Masonic era, such as the Anno Lucis (A.L.).

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The Battle of Yavin was a major battle of the Galactic Civil War that led to the destruction of the First Death Star and was one of the Rebellion's first major victories.

19 years after the founding of the Galactic Empire

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The Treaty of Coruscant was the peace agreement that brought an end to the Great Galactic War in 3653 BBY. The Galactic Republic was strong armed into the treaty following the twenty-eight year conflict with the Sith Empire that saw the galactic government crumble under the pressures of war and economic struggles. The concept of a cessation of hostilities between the Republic and Empire was first proposed by the Sith Dark Council, under the leadership of the Sith Emperor. Although wary of possible ulterior motives, the Republic's Galactic Senate accepted the offer out of desperation. The two governments organized a summit to take place on the Core World of Alderaan, where delegations from both factions would meet to deliberate the terms of peace.

While representatives of the Empire and the Republic conferred, the Sith launched an unexpected assault on the Republic capital world of Coruscant. The Sacking of Coruscant placed the Republic's capital firmly under the control of the Sith Empire, and gave the Imperial delegation on Alderaan the leverage they needed in order to demand the Republic's surrender of the war. The leader of the Imperial delegation—the Sith Lord Darth Baras—authored the Treaty of Coruscant and presented it to the representatives of the Senate and the Jedi Order for their signatures. They signed the document, ending the Great Galactic War and declaring the Sith Empire as the victor.

The treaty divided the galaxy in two and demanded that all Republic forces and Jedi withdraw from open conflict with the Empire and that the Senate cede a number of outlying worlds to the Sith. The agreement was heavily opposed by certain interests within the Republic, including Jedi Master Dar'Nala, General Elin Garza of the Republic Military, and the Royal House of Alderaan. Such opposition to the treaty led to the initiation of a galactic Cold War fought between the Republic and Empire both directly and by proxy. The treaty was so significant that the Galactic Senate adopted the date of its signing as a new dating standard.

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The Hundred-Year Darkness was a period of time that led to the formation of the Sith, who were once considered brothers in the Force with the Jedi Order. The birth of the Sith led to a number of wars over the course of galactic history.

The Hundred-Year Darkness was a conflict that began in 7000 BBY and lasted until approximately 6900 BBY, when a group of Dark Jedi created monstrous armies to battle the Jedi Order and the Galactic Republic. The Hundred-Year Darkness began three years after the Dark Jedi split with the Order in the Second Great Schism. After decades of fighting, the Dark Jedi lost the war, in its final battle, but went on to conquer Korriban, and found the Sith.

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The Great Hyperspace War was a war fought between the Galactic Republic and the Sith Empire in 5000 BBY.[2]

The conflict encompassed the entire Galactic Republic, though the main forces focused their attention on three Republic worlds, and later took the war to the remote star system Primus Goluud, and the Sith mausoleum world of Korriban.[2]

After it overcame the initial shock of the Sith invasion, the Republic's armadas regrouped and annihilated the Sith Empire, forcing the Sith Lord Naga Sadow to exile himself to Yavin 4.

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The Great Sith War, also known as the Sith War, the First Sith War, and the Exar Kun War, or the Great Shadow Crusade to the Mandalorians, was a galaxy-wide conflict which took place in 3996 BBY. One of the largest engagements of the Old Sith Wars, the Great Sith War saw the rise of the Sith, once again in opposition to the Jedi Order. The roots of the conflict are traced back to the fall of Freedon Nadd from the Jedi way and his ascension to Dark Lord of the Sith. Eventually his dark influence was discovered on the planet Onderon and the ensuing battle saw the Jedi temporarily break Nadd's hold on the remote planet. This fight against the resurgent power of the Sith was a warning to the Jedi that something ominous was brewing.

The influence of the Sith, however, again resurfaced during the Freedon Nadd Uprising, which managed to establish the means for the Krath to grow in power and influence. Using Sith knowledge that they had gained from Nadd and his followers on Onderon, the Krath instituted a bloody coup in the Empress Teta system and began a series of campaigns aimed at Republic space. After several defeats at the hands of the Krath, Jedi Knight Ulic Qel-Droma advised the Jedi Order that he would infiltrate the Krath and destroy them from within. During his undercover mission, Ulic fell to the dark side and joined forces with another fallen Jedi-turned-Sith by the name of Exar Kun. Eventually, Kun was anointed the new Dark Lord of the Sith with Qel-Droma his apprentice, and together they ushered the galaxy into a new Sith age.

With their allies, Exar Kun and Ulic Qel-Droma launched a series of deadly campaigns against the Republic, eventually making their way to the heart of the galaxy—Coruscant. Following this battle Kun and Qel-Droma launched an assault on Ossus, in an attempt to raid the planet of its Jedi artifacts. However, the battle of Ossus saw the defeat of the Sith forces, the capture of Ulic Qel-Droma, and the retreat of Kun to his base on Yavin 4. Broken and humbled, Qel-Droma agreed to lead the combined forces of the Republic Rim Fleet and the Jedi to Yavin 4, in an effort to defeat Exar Kun. Under the combined efforts of the Jedi, Kun was defeated and the Great Sith War brought to an end.

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The Mandalorian Wars was the term given to the sixteen years of conflict between the Mandalorian warrior culture and the Galactic Republic that began in 3976 BBY with the Battle of Althir. Occurring two decades after the end of the Great Sith War, the Mandalorian Wars spanned almost two decades themselves, though historians often disagreed on the endpoints of the conflict; the Mandalorians raided star systems in the Outer Rim Territories for over a decade before they actually came into conflict with the Republic Military in 3965 BBY. Led by Mandalore the Ultimate, who pioneered the Neo-Crusader movement with the help of his lieutenant, Cassus Fett, the Mandalorians conquered systems along the eastern edge of the galaxy. Though their conquests included the near-extinction of the Cathar species, it was not until their assaults on worlds near the planet Taris that they drew the Republic's attention. After a year of small conflicts known as the False War, the Mandalorians broke through the Republic's lines and besieged Taris in 3963 BBY, and then invaded the Republic through three separate corridors in what became known as the Onslaught.

The tide ultimately turned when a group of interventionist Jedi known as the Revanchists, led by the charismatic Revan and his friend Malak, joined the Republic Military in combating the Mandalorians. A tactical genius, Revan won several victories against the Mandalorians and began to reclaim lost territory, prompting Supreme Chancellor Tol Cressa to appoint him Supreme Commander in 3962 BBY. Driving back the Mandalorians, Revan forced a final showdown with Mandalore the Ultimate at the Battle of Malachor V in 3960 BBY. Revan personally defeated Mandalore in single combat as the Republic and Mandalorian fleets battled above Malachor V, and the activation of the superweapon known as the Mass Shadow Generator devastated both the planet and the participating fleets.

The Mandalorian Wars had long-reaching consequences: Revan forced the defeated Mandalorians to disarm and hid Mandalore's Mask, the symbol of their leadership, and both he and Malak were turned to the dark side of the Force while investigating the Sith influence that had caused Mandalore to go to war. Many of the soldiers and Jedi who followed Revan in the Mandalorian Wars joined the two new Dark Lords of the Sith as they formed their own Sith Empire and invaded the Republic in a subsequent conflict known as the Jedi Civil War.

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The Jedi Civil War, also known as the Second Sith War, the Old Republic Insurrection, and by the Mandalorians as the War of the Star Forge, was a devastating conflict that began when the Jedi Knight Revan, who had led the forces of the Galactic Republic to victory in the Mandalorian Wars, founded his own Sith Empire and declared himself the Dark Lord of the Sith. The war began when he, along with his friend and apprentice Darth Malak, led an invasion of the Galactic Republic in the year 3958 BBY. With the aid of veterans from the Mandalorian Wars and a host of Dark Jedi converts that had served with them, the former Jedi hoped to take over the Republic in anticipation of a greater threat posed by a Sith Empire that lurked within the Unknown Regions of the galaxy.

During the war, Darth Revan brought the Republic to its knees and nearly succeeded in conquering it, however, a trap set by the Jedi and unwittingly abetted by Malak left him comatose, with his mind nearly destroyed. Barely alive, he was taken from the wreckage by the Jedi Knight Bastila Shan, whose skills in battle meditation and the Force had allowed the mission to happen. Taken to the Jedi Enclave on Dantooine, Revan was healed by the Jedi Council and reprogrammed to believe that he was an agent loyal to the Republic. Revan was assigned under the command of Shan, who was then placed aboard the Endar Spire. In 3956 BBY, with the intention of drawing out Revan's fragmented memories of the Star Forge, the vast space station that was the source of the seemingly endless resources of the Sith, he was taken to the ecumenopolis of Taris where a Sith fleet under the direct command of Malak was waiting in ambush.

Eventually escaping from Taris, Revan, along with Shan, the Republic commander Carth Onasi, and several others, fled to the Dantooine Academy, where the Jedi Masters there retrained him. After several weeks, the Dantooine Council sent him and the crew of the Ebon Hawk back out into the wider galaxy to track down the Star Forge's location, at the heart of the ancient Infinite Empire of the Rakata. Later, after a number of ancient Star Maps had been uncovered, Malak led an attack against the Enclave, devastating it and further crippling the Jedi Order. After finding the last Star Map and, from it, deducing the location of the Rakatan homeworld, Revan, the Jedi, and the Republic launched the war's final battle. Revan vanquished Malak aboard the Star Forge, and the Republic successfully routed the Sith forces. With Malak dead, the Star Forge destroyed, and the Sith fleet scattered and defeated, the long and costly war came to an end.

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The Great Galactic War, known as the Great War during the conflict and in the years afterward, was a war between the Sith Empire and the Galactic Republic between 3681 BBY and 3653 BBY, lasting for a total of 28 years. Also known as the Republic–Sith War, the conflict was ultimately the culmination of a 1300-year grudge held by survivors of the old Sith Empire against the Republic for their defeat in the Great Hyperspace War.

The war would cost countless lives and devastate worlds from the Core to the Rim, as well as having dramatic galactic consequences otherwise. The Republic economy was shattered and roughly half the galaxy would end up under Sith dominion, and the Jedi Order would withdraw from the galactic capital to establish a new home on their ancient homeworld.

But it would not ultimately be conclusive. While a strategic defeat for the Republic, the end of the war left both powers standing, engaged in an undeclared conflict for supremacy on numerous disputed worlds.

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The Ruusan Reformation was an event that restructured the entire Galactic Republic following the New Sith Wars, taking power away from the Supreme Chancellor and reinvesting it in the Galactic Senate.

The reforms were enacted by then-Chancellor Tarsus Valorum and also resulted in the Republic Measures & Standards Bureau resetting the year zero to the year of the Seventh Battle of Ruusan, which would come to be known as 1000 BBY by the Galactic Standard Calendar.

The system of government did not seem to change too dramatically (as the Republic had been ruled by a Supreme Chancellor and the Galactic Senate as early as 15,000 BBY) but the Jedi Order underwent a significant adjustment. In symbolic measures, largely to convince the Republic that they would not become a conquering army, the Jedi abandoned their battle armor, renounced all military ranks (such as "Jedi Lord"), dissolved their commander-in-chief, disbanded their army, naval and starfighter forces, and placed themselves under the supervision of the Supreme Chancellor and the Judicial Department, effectively dissolving the Military. In order to lessen the chance of a Sith resurgence, the Order began training children from birth. In addition, the training of Padawans was centralized on Coruscant, to remove the danger of unsupervised students delving into forbidden Sith knowledge.

Politically, however, the Reformations did affect representation within the Senate. In an effort to remove corruption and decentralize power away from a few powerful Coreward sectors that held the most representation, Valorum took the then-existing millions of sectors and reorganized them into only 1,024 sectors. Each of the new sectors were granted its own Senator, although a few exemptions were made for politically powerful core worlds to retain their individual representation. Other slots, such as those for species types and cultural entities were also granted.[1] The Reformation Act was a critical piece of legislation.[2]

The Reformation put an end to the Republic Dark Age. It was considered to be the start of the Golden Age of the Old Republic.

Simultaneously, Darth Bane's Sith Order also underwent its own reformation, reorganizing into the Rule of Two.

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The Great ReSynchronization was a 60 year long notation system that was established in 35 BBY by the Republic Measures & Standards Bureau to recalibrate the disparate dating systems used by the Galactic Republic. Later in 25 ABY, it was disbanded and reorganized by the New Republic into the GSC (Galactic Standard Calendar). It was since used as a zero year for the dating system; thus, the Battle of Geonosis takes place in the year 13, the Great Jedi Purge in the year 16, Battle of Yavin in the year 35, and the Battle of Endor in the year 39. The Seventh Battle of Ruusan occurred in the year 965 BrS.

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The Galactic Empire, also known as the New Order, the First Galactic Empire, the Order or simply the Empire was the government that rose to power in the aftermath of the Clone Wars, replacing the Galactic Republic. Central authority was given to Darth Sidious, publicly known as Emperor Palpatine, who was also the Dark Lord of the Sith. For nearly two decades, the legislative body was the Imperial Senate, but it was dissolved by the Emperor shortly before the Battle of Yavin. During the reign of the Empire, countless star systems were conquered and dissident actions ruthlessly stamped out by the rapidly expanding Imperial Army and Navy. The Empire also oversaw the near extermination of the Jedi, with the destruction of the Jedi Temple on Coruscant and its renovation into the newly named Imperial Palace.

After nineteen years of minimal resistance, the Empire would face its first major setback after losing its planet-destroying battle station known as the Death Star to a survivor of the Jedi Purge. The following four years would see the Galactic Civil War wage across the galaxy as the Order rapidly attempted to stamp out the growing Rebellion on the galaxy's outer fringes. Following the death of Galactic Emperor Palpatine and his right hand man Darth Vader in the Battle of Endor, the Empire would be fragmented as the New Republic slowly pushed its way back towards the Coruscant Core. Following the disastrous Battle of Jakku, the Empire would be forced to sign the Galactic Concordance, severely limiting its ability to wage war and effectively transforming it into a rump state. Dissatisfied Imperial leaders would ultimately venture into the Unknown Regions with some of the regime's greatest secrets. There, distanced from the prying eyes of the New Republic, the First Order would emerge from its ashes. With the Galactic Empire no more than a former memory, it would be commonly referred to as the Old Empire.

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The Battle of Endor was the climactic battle that took place during the Galactic Civil War between the Rebel Alliance and the Galactic Empire in the Endor system. It saw the destruction of the Death Star II and the deaths of both Anakin Skywalker and Emperor Sheev Palpatine, as well as many major Imperial officers.

The battle was an elaborate trap setup by the Emperor Palatine to destroy Luke Skywalker and the Rebel Alliance. Through a counterintelligence campaign, the Empire leaked the location of the construction site of the Death Star II and led the Rebel Alliance to believe that the battle station was lightly guarded and inoperative. When the Alliance Fleet arrived, it was met by the Imperial fleet along with a fully operational Death Star.

The battle began on the forested moon of Endor where a Rebel strike team, led by General Han Solo, assaulted the shield generator protecting the Death Star II. With help from Ewok tribes, local inhabitants of the forested moon, the Rebel strike team was able to destroy the shield generator, allowing the starfighter attack, led by General Lando Calrissian on the Millennium Falcon, to enter the Death Star's superstructure and destroyed its reactor core. Above Endor, the Alliance Fleet, under the command of Admiral Gial Ackbar, engaged the Imperial Fleet, creating a perimeter for the starfighter attack. During the battle, Rebel Commander and aspiring Jedi Knight Luke Skywalker faced his father Anakin Skywalker in combat aboard the Death Star's Throne Room, in order to kill the Emperor and end his reign.

In the aftermath of the battle, Alliance forces worked relentlessly to defeat all remaining Imperial remnants on the forest moon, culminating in the assault on the Imperial outpost at the far side of Endor. Shortly after the battle, the Alliance began is transition to the New Republic. The death of the Emperor propelled the Empire into an accelerated decline as Imperial remnants struggled to maintain unity. The Alliance's success at Endor began a string of victories for the New Republic, culminating in the signing of the Galactic Concordance, a historic peace treaty that ended hostilities between the New Republic and the Galactic Empire.